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Kidney Injury Molecule 1 Wikipedia

The study shows that duplications of large DNA segments encompassing numerous genes occur spontaneously and are most likely the results of replication accidents.EMBO J. www.sciencedirect.com Current Opinion in Cell Biology: View publication stats View publication stats Please check the document version below.Permanent, bilateral common carotid artery occlusion in the rat: A model for chronic cerebral hypoperfusionrelated neurodegenerative diseases.The reconstruction of a pathological condition in animal models is a suitable approach to the unraveling of causal relationships.For this reason, permanent, bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries in rats has been established as a procedure to investigate the effects of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion on cognitive dysfunction and neurodegenerative processes.In addition, the model has been introduced in research into ischemic white matter injury and ischemic eye disease.The present survey sets out to provide a comprehensive summary of the achievements made with the VO model, and a critical evaluation and integration of the various results, and to relate the experimental data to human diseases.The data that have accumulated from use of the VO model in the rat permit an understanding of the causative role played by cerebral hypoperfusion in neurodegenerative diseases.A sudden disruption of the blood supply to distinct brain regions leads to stroke, while a moderate but persistent reduction in regional cerebral blood flow compromises memory processes and contributes to the development and progression of dementia.Additionally, the degree or pattern of cerebral hypoperfusion in mild cognitive impairment has been suggested as a predictive marker for the progression to AD. Furthermore, global cerebral hypoperfusion can occur in patients who have suffered a cardiac arrest or those who undergo complex cardiac surgery, and this condition can lead to a poor neurologic outcome. For an understanding of the role of the cerebrovascular pathology in the development of a cognitive dysfunction and dementia, it is important to explore the cerebral hypoperfusionrelated metabolic changes, the distinct neurodegenerative and cognitive correlates of hypoperfusion, and the causal relationships between these factors.Furthermore, recognition of particular mechanisms in the chain of events from chronic cerebral hypoperfusion to a cognitive decline may identify potential targets for effective therapies.For these purposes, a number of animal models have been introduced.Vessel occlusion studies aim at creating ischemic or oligemic injuries with various degrees of severity in the brains of experimental animals.The rat is a frequently used species in consequence of the good survival rate, the satisfactory recovery from surgery, the easy and reproducible behavioral testing, the relatively low costs, and ethical acceptance.A great variety of rat vessel occlusion models have emerged, most of which are applied in stroke research.Since stroke is an acute pathophysiological condition, the experimental stroke models are generally employed to investigate the shortterm effects of vessel occlusion, and the possibilities of rapid interventions designed to limit neurodegenerative processes.To this end, two experimental approaches have evolved in the rat: transient occlusion of the middle cerebral artery and permanent occlusion of extracranial vessels in combination with experimental hypotension or hypoxia.In the frequently used transient ischemia models, there is an obvious component of reperfusion, the brain damage is focal and severe, the ischemic site can typically be divided into a core and a penumbra region, B R A I N R E S E A R C H R E V I E W S motor dysfunction evidently appears as a functional correlate of the brain damage, and even seizures may develop.

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