This results in increased capillary red blood cell velocity and shear stress, as well asincreased capillary wall tension.These changes are likely to disturb the luminal side of capillary endothelial cells and consequently to release bound proteases that would disrupt the integrity of the basement membrane.This Avobenzone disruption may then lead to the release of growth Fumaric acid factors such as bFGF, although there is little or no ex perimental evidence for this at present; migration of endothelial cells outside, mitosis, and the formation of sprouts follows.That capillary sprouts always seem to occur at a bend in an existing vessel lends support to a role for the increased wall tension.Likewise, in the par allel arrangement of capillaries along muscle fibers, ex ternally imposed stretch during muscle contractions could provide an additional, although not essential, fac tor in promoting angiogenesis in skeletal muscles.In the heart, capillary growth may be elicited both by procedures that do increase blood flow.In creased velocity of red blood cells, and hence shear stress, therefore do not seem to be as important a factor in the initiation of angiogenesis in cardiac muscle.How ever, bradycardia results in anincreased wall tension, as capillaries are wider during diastole and bradycardia increases its duration.In addition, bradycardia also leads to an increased force of contraction during systole, a feature common to dobutamine treatment, which would increase capillary wall tension and stretch the basement membrane.Stretch of the basement membrane would therefore lead to the release of growth factors that have been shown to be present in hearts during angiogenesis.Infarct size, myocy te hypertrophy, and capillary growth.Circulation hyper J.Cardiovascular to chronic hypoxia.A structural and functional study.Physiological, histochemical and metabolic changes during slowtofast transformation.An ultrastructural rat.April zk? ANGIOGENESIS IN SKELETAL AND CARDIAC MUSCLE. Physiok. Diabetologica. Acta. A study in the rat, using microangiography and the scanning elec tron microscope.Heart. ion accumulation in a canine skeletal muscle ischemiareperfu sion model.Effectofperipheral arterial in suff ic iency. Scanning. Effectoflactate, pyruvate and pH on secretionof an giogenesis and mitogenesis factors by macrophages.Diabetologica. Diabetes LAUGHLIN, M.Quantitative stereological study on papillary muscle.Diabete. AN infarction in of the rat heart.PRZYKLENK, for a transition J.Myocyte reactions at the bordersof injured and healing rat myocardium.PJluegers AND H. HOP Arch. Currently, vasculogenic mimicry, myeloid celldriven angiogenesis are all considered to contribute to tumor angiogenesis.Many of these processes have been described in developmental angiogenesis; however, the relative contribution and relevance of these in human brain cancer remain unclear.Preclinical tumor models support a role for sprouting angiogenesis, vascular cooption and myeloid cellderived angiogenesis in glioma vascularization, whereas a role for the other four mechanisms remains controversial and rather enigmatic.Antiangiogenic therapy may lead to vascular normalization and as such facilitate conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy.From thereon, it took years before broblast growth factor, the rst heparinbinding angiogenic growth factor, was identied and years before vascular endothelial growth factor, which by now has turned out to be the single most important angiogenesis factor in both health and disease, was described. It is now evident that the entire process of tumorinduced angiogenesis appears to be far more complex than initially envisioned.