Impairment of the visual system after VO induction led to further doubts as to the outcome and interpretation of spatial orientation tasks based on visual cues.However, other nonvisual learning paradigms recently introduced in VO studies clearly demonstrate that the memory processes are progressively disturbed in the model.Overall, the VO rat model has prompted an understanding of the causative role played by cerebral hypoperfusion in neurodegenerative diseases.Future VO studies could well unravel the hypoperfusionrelated biochemical mechanisms involved in neuronal damage.As a final point, the VO model has now been extensively characterized, and it seems highly suitable for the testing of potentially neuroprotective drugs.Effects of chronic nimodipine treatment.Mild therapeutic hypothermia to improve the neurologic outcome after cardiac arrest.Anesthesiology. Neuroscience. Anesthesiology. Mechanisms of degeneration and compensation in rat models.Neurology. Med. Sci. Monit. Aatoxin contamination occurs by colonization of the fungus on susceptible crops, or may arise during harvesting, drying, storage, or processing.Although the liver is clearly the principal target organ for AFB, the lung can also be a target following dietary and inhalational exposure.Both epidemiological evidence strongly support a role for AFB in the induction of human lung cancer.AFB is bioactivated by epoxidation of the terminal furan ring double bond, generating the electrophilic intermediate AFB,epoxide, a stereoisomer which exists in both the exo and endo conformations. The most plausible explanation for this difference in reactivity is that intercalation of the furanocoumarin entity of the epoxide between the bases in DNA orients the epoxide for SN attack by N of guanine, forming trans,dihydro as the primary AFBDNA adduct. AFBFAPY represents a signicant fraction of the adducts formed in vivo following exposure to AFB. AFBFAPY is an equilibrium mixture of two rotameric forms separable by chromatography and designated as AFBFAPY major and AFBFAPY minor.While many reactive oxygen species such as superoxide radical anion, hydrogen peroxide and lipid hydroperoxides do not appear to interact with DNA, they are precursors to hydroxyl radical. At present, the mechanism by which AFB induces oxidative stress is not known.The importance of NER is exemplied by the existence of the autosomal recessive human disorder, xeroderma pigmentosum. NER deals with the wide array of DNA helixdistorting lesions that interfere with base pairing, thereby obstructing transcription and normal replication. NER can be divided into two subpathways: global genome repair. GGR screens the entire genome for DNA les ions and is thoughtto be large ly transcriptionindependent. The unwinding of a few basepairs energetically favors DNA bending, facilitating further unwinding by NER enzymes.TCR deals specically with lesions that arrest RNA polymerase on the transcribed strand of active genes.DNA lesions that induce minor helix distortion but block transcription are preferentially repaired by TCR.In contrast to GGR, the structure of the lesion is less important for damage recognition by TCR, so the rate of TCR of structurally unrelated lesions is very similar. GGR and TCR are differentiated by their mechanisms of damage recognition. The heterodimeric damaged DNA binding proteins belong to the XPE complementation group and play an important role in the recognition of UV damage.TCR is triggered by the ability of the lesion to block the elongating RNA polymerase II complex.