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IFN affects EC responses by induction of IP, which results in inhibition of angiogenesis. Tumour cells respond directly to IFN by suppressing the expression of MMP gene, that is implicated in the invasion and angiogenesis process of malignant tumours and in inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system. Further, IFN inhibits the expression of MMP, an important component of human astroglioma invasion.Thus, IFN may have beneficial effects in attenuating astroglioma invasive properties.Such hypothesis, along with the fact that current treatments for malignant gliomas are still largely ineffective in significantly improving prognosis, has led to the development of new therapeutic strategies involving IFN and, Upadacitinib specifically, treatment of established intracranial tumours by in situ retroviral IFN transfer. Earlier reports have already described that gene transfer of IFN into established brain tumours represses growth by antiangiogenesis, supporting the hypothesis that this therapeutic strategy may provide an effective method of eradicating established intracranial tumours.IFN inhibition of angiogenesis is critical also in colon carcinoma, since IFN causes transcriptional silencing of perlecan gene expression in a colon carcinoma cell line. Thus, IFN mediated transcriptional repression of perlecan may represent a novel antiangiogenic and antitumou raleffectofth is cy tok ine. O therreports rega rd ing IFN involvement in angiogenesis point out that IFN dependent inhibition of tumour angiogenesis by tumourinfiltrating CD T cells requires tumour responsiveness to IFN. In this report, the authors show that tumour responsiveness to IFN is necessary for IFN dependent inhibition of tumour angiogenesis by CD T cells, demonstrating a critical and pivotal role for CD T cells in restraining initial tumour development through the inhibition of tumour angiogenesis.More recently it has been reported that I F N med ia tesIL induced mobil izationof human CD T lymphocytes within tumour microenvironment of human lung cancer. It is widely recognised that tumour Flibanserin rejection by CD T cells is primarily mediated by direct killing. However, it has been recently repor ted thatIFN mediated angiostasis is critical also for tumour rejection by CD T cells. Indeed, rejection of different tumours, such as fibrosarcoma, rastransformed fibroblasts, colon carcinoma and plasmacytoma, by CD cells is always preceded by inhibition of tumourinduced angiogenesis. The role played by TNF is much more complex: it directly inhibits EC proliferation, but indirectly it enhances angiogenesis, through macrophage recruitment and activation.The net balance for TNF activities is to switch a proangiogenic programme.In addition, only few results have been obtained by mimicking the cellular behaviour and interactions that could be relevant in the microenvironment to switch angiogenesis processes. Under a therapeutic point of view, such scenario however raises the poss ibility thatcy tok ines and cells invo lved may representnoveltherapeutic targets.Indeed, IL and IFN are being intensively studied for their direct impact on tumour progression, underscored by a number of clinical trials performed by using such cytokines.With regards to TNF, two TNF antagonists have been licensed for clinical trials in the treatment of inflammatory disease. AntiTNF antibody treatment results in inhibition of cytokinechemokine production, reduced angiogenesis and prevention of leukocyte infiltration, suggesting that all these actions may be useful in a biological therapy for cancer.

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