Pharmacological screening revealed that phyllanthin is antioxidant, hepatoprotective, anticancer, antidiabetic, immunosuppressant, and antiinammatory.Phyllanthin and hypophyllanthin show antitumor activities.It is an effective remedy for urolithiasis, one of the oldest known diseases. Inhibitory action was also noticed for aqueous and methanol extracts against leptospira.A correlation between total phenolic content and S.Ellagitannins geraniin and amariin were found to protect the liver cell from ethanolic cytotoxicity. The lignan niranthin exhibited antiinammatory and antiallodynic activities. There is increasing concern regarding adulteration and species admixture in the raw herb trade as the adverse S.In order to make herbal medicine more credible and acceptable, a comprehensive herbal product authentication has to be evolved.Qualitative and quantitative analysis of a number of marker compounds is the basis of quality control of herbal medicines.This approach fails when there are no suitable markers.Moreover, selecting a few compounds from a complex mixture may not reect the real picture as synergistic effects are not taken into account.Herbal drugs contain diverse compounds in complex matrices, and the overall therapeutic efcacy may depend not on a single compound but on the synergy of several components.Chemical ngerprinting or evaluation of a product in its entirety can be effectively used to describe the complexity of herbal medicines. It serves as a tool for identication, authentication, and quality control of herbal drugs all over the world.Analysis of such complex data requires special software, and principal component analysis is one such software used for chemometric analysis, an approach to the interpretation of patterns in multivariate data, to evaluate similarities and to discriminate herbs from closely related species and from adulterants. TLC, HPLC, GC, GCMS, and HPLCMS data can be used to generate a chemical ngerprint.Because of its simplicity and reliability, chromatographic and spectral ngerprinting technique is a popular and potent tool for quality control of herbal medicines. Hexane and methanol leaf extracts were analyzed by GCMS. Nine compounds, mainly avones and sterols, were identied from hexane fraction and compounds including steroids and triterpenoids were identied in the methanol extract.PCA was carried out to differentiate different species, locations, and herbal formulations.It has various traditional uses worldwide for the treatments of jaundice, diabetes, dysentery, fever, gonorrhea, syphilis and stomachache, and skin diseases.Pharmacological and chemical studies have conrmed that the extracts of the plant possess various biological activities, and extracts have been evaluated in human trials for the treatment of HIV, jaundice, hypertension, and diabetes due to the impressive preclinical therapeutic potential.Phyllanthin showed very high antioxidant activity.Similarly, amariin, repandusinic acid, and phyllanthusiin D showed higher antioxidant activity.A gallotannin containing fraction and the isolated ellagitannins geraniin and corilagin were exhibited to be S.Kumar the most potent mediators of antiviral activities.Lignans nirtetralin, niranthin, or phyllanthin exerted cytotoxic effects on K cells.Phyllanthin demonstrated its role in protection by antagonizing rat liver cell injury induced by ethanol.Three pure pentacyclic triterpenoids, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, and lupeol, inhibited amylase.Thus activityguided phytochemical and phytoanalytical information seems to be very useful and might lead to development of novel agents for various disorders and could be explored further for commercial purposes.