International Classication of Diseases. Curr. Top. Behav. Neurosci. It is usually prescribed as a complementary and alternative medicine for cancer therapy.However, the main active ingredients of XHW that treat lung cancer and their regulatory eects remain unclear.The results demonstrated that XHW inhibited tumour growth in this model.Additionally, dierentially expressed metabolites were identied in the XHW group compared to those in the model group or normal group by untargeted metabolomics.They were enriched in amino acidrelated metabolic pathways, and the top three pathways were phenylalanine metabolism; phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis; and aminoacyltRNA biosynthesis.Our results suggested that the key metabolites of XHW involved in the treatment of lung cancer were regulated by a multicomponent and multitarget interaction network.However, current therapies including surgery, chemotherapy, radiotherapy and targeted therapies, have reached a therapeutic plateau because of their toxic side eects and acquired resistance.Although it has recently been shown that the latest immunotherapies, such as nivolumab, pembrolizumab, atezolizumab, durvalumab and avelumab, signicantly extend patient survival, the current plight of cancer treatment remains unresolved.This is an open access article under the CC BYNCND license. Nevertheless, how XHW exerts its regulatory role in patients with tumours are still unclear.Metabolomics is a powerful approach that provides important information about disease processes or physiological conditions by identifying a set of lowmolecularweight endogenous metabolites. In additon, network pharmacology has also been used to elucidate the regulation of TCM formulations by constructing the drugdiseasetarget network, because it can provide an ideal example for the handling of a variety of constituent herbs. Therefore, to inspect the relationship between potential metabolites and herbs and illuminate targets associated with TCM treatment of diseases, the combination of metabolomics and network pharmacology is a promising strategy. Here, an integrated strategy of network pharmacology and metabolomics was applied to explain regulatory eects of XHW against lung tumours.First, the antilung cancer eect of XHW was evaluated in an LLC mouse model.Second, dierential metabolites resulting from XHW treatment against lung cancer were identied with metabolomics.Third, the components and targets related to XHW treatment of lung cancer were screened through network pharmacology.Animals were free to consume water and food under standard breeding conditions and maintained on a hhdark light cycle throughout the whole experiment.Anlotinib was dissolved in normal saline and stored in the dark at. Mice were randomly divided into six groups, namely, the normal group, model group, anlotinib group, XHW high dose group, XHW middle dose group and XHW low dose group.The tumour, kidney, heart, spleen, liver and lung were removed and weighed.Additionally, the tumour volume was determined using calliper measurements and the following formula. mL centrifuge tubes and vortexed for more than s.Then the mixture was centrifuged at, rpm at C for min.Next, L of the top layer was placed in a centrifuge tube and spindried.A total of L of methanol was added for redissolution followed by centrifugation. To verify the repeatability and stability of the system, L of each sample was placed in a tube, and quality control samples were prepared.All samples were maintained at C throughout the analysis.