Data are shown as mean SEM and expressed as percentage of maximal contraction induced by phenylephrine.Moreover, chemical, physiological, and enzymatic parameters associated with vasodilation of the blood vessel were investigated.Some of the metabolites and parameters found to be inuenced by ginseng have been reported in previous studies, while others were newly found in this study.Overall, ginseng intake in rats reduced blood lipid parameters, including TC, HDL, LDL, and oxLDL, resulting in a decrease in the ratios of oxLDLHDL, oxLDLLDL, and oxLDLTC, which are typical lipid biomarkers used for evaluating oxidation and antioxidation status in type diabetes mellitus. However, the body weight and the ratio of total to HDL cholesterol, a specic marker of coronary artery disease, were not inuenced by ginseng intake.This result is in agreement with a recent report showing that blood LPC levels of prehypertensive patients that consumed ginseng were lower than those of a placebo group. These results can support the positive correlation between ginseng consumption and its ecacy on major cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, cardiac disease, and hyperlipidemia. Recent studies suggested that ginsenosides, combined with estrogen receptors, regulated the biological eect of estrogen hormones. In particular, estradiol and its metabolite, hydroxyestradiol, highly stimulated endothelial nitric oxide production, inhibited the proliferation and collagen synthesis in rat cardiac broblasts, and prevented oxLDL formation. These results revealed that the reduction in blood phospholipids and increased estrogen metabolites, including hydroxyestradiol derivatives, by ginseng intake might be positively associated with blood vessel health buy Diethylcarbamazine through prevention of inammation and oxidative stress, with concomitant stimulation of nitric oxiderelated vasodilation.Indeed, we found that ginseng intake decreased the levels of cytokines, including IL, IL, and TNF, and factors associated with high blood pressure, including ACE activity and angiotensin II.Consistent with previous reports, ginseng extract also produced vasodilation via endothelial nitric oxide activation.These results suggested that ginseng improved blood vessel health through the protection of oxidative stress, inammation, and high blood pressure factors.In particular, the analysis of blood vessel tension clearly indicated that ginseng had a vasodilation eect through activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and the inhibition of ACE and angiotensin II activities, which are related to hypertension; however, the eects of ginseng and individual compounds on eNOS activity were not investigated in the present study.LPC and vascular smooth muscle cells, which can be related to atherogenesis. In addition, estradiol induced eNOS activity in in vitro studies, showing rapid activity contributing to the great release of endothelialderived nitric oxide. Recent studies have also shown that ginsenosides have a positive eect on blood vessel health.In addition to blood vessel health, ginseng intake has been shown to reduce the oxidative stress of the kidneys.The level of the renal oxidized form of glutathione, which is produced by oxidative stress and a known marker of oxidative stress in chronic renal failure, was decreased by ginseng intake in the present study.Although the activity of the related enzymes was not evaluated, this result partially supports the antioxidant eect of ginseng reported from aged rats. Unlike oxidized glutathione, the level of renal stearoylcarnitine was increased by ginseng intake.