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Protein Channel Adalah

The molecular mechanisms regulating this process have been studied extensively in recent years. Some will be transported to various organs or tissues via lipophorin.Dysregulation of cholesterol homeostasis can affect insect growth, nutrient accumulation, and behavior patterns. However, in most natural situations, insects are more likely to encounter sterol deficits than surpluses.In insects, NPC and NPC play key roles in cholesterol absorption into midgut epithelial cells and intracellular trafficking, and both bind cholesterol in vitro.NPC is a large polytopic transmembrane protein consisting of an amino terminal domain. In contrast, NPC is a group of small intralysosomal and soluble proteins and serves as a lysosomal transporter that delivers cholesterol directly to the NTD domain of NPC. In all animals studied to date, loss of function of either NPC or NPC is lethal.NPC likely evolved from the resistancenodulationcell division. This likely occurred through a duplication event in a common insect ancestor. Interestingly, sterol trafficking is not totally interrupted in the mutant flies, so other redundant factors must be involved in cholesterol transportation. Instead, it is usually restricted to the midgut tissue, mirroring that of mammal NPCL expressed at the apical membrane of enterocytes. Its expression is negatively related to the concentration of dietary cholesterol, likely through the regulation of hormone receptor. Sterol contained in micelles formed from ingested foods moves across the peritrophic matrix and through the enterocyte membrane. Cholesterol diffusing into cells is carried by SCP proteins through the cytoplasm. Once inside a cell, cholesterol has four possible destinations.First, it can be inserted into the membrane of enterocytes.Second, it can move into various organelles, including the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrion.Third, some cholesterol is expelled from enterocytes via ABC transporters.Fourth, and most likely, cholesterol is transported to various organs and tissues via lipophorin. Drosophila has eight NPC homologs, and each has the conversed disulfide bondforming cysteine residues to form the potential hydrophobic cholesterolbinding core. However, not all NPC homologs are equally distributed across different insect tissues, and different homologs can express highly in the same tissue.However, the redundancy of NPC homologs in insects may be functionally significant given the nutritional requirement for sterols and the need for each cell to practice intracellular sterol transport.There are groups of nuclear receptor in insects, and HR belongs to NRJ. Specifically, HR responds to dietary sterol concentrations.Additionally, some genes respond to cholesterol independently of HR.HR is found in nearly all insects but is noticeably absent in aphids. In vertebrates, SCP is involved in the transfer of newly synthesized cholesterol from the ER to the plasma membrane. In contrast, insect SCP which has strong binding affinity to cholesterolis enriched in organs involved in cholesterol absorption, transportation, and metabolism.It has been suggested that SCP may also help desorb and transfer dietary sterols from the enterocyte apical membrane through the cytoplasm to the basal membrane of enterocytes. Overexpression of SCP can promote the cellular uptake of cholesterol, while its knockdown reduces dietary cholesterol absorption.Insect lipophorina type of lipoproteinresides in the aqueous hemolymph and shuttles sterols from enterocytes to various organs.

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