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Several findings suggest that lymphangiogenesis may also play an important role in development of adipose tissue.Adipogenesis and fat deposition are known to occur efficiently around lymph nodes, where the adipocytes provide energy for local Ropivacaine hydrochloride lymphoid metabolic needs. VEGFD is mitogenic for endothelial cells and has angiogenic as well as lymphangiogenic potential in vivo. However, a nutritionally induced obesity model in VEGFD deficient mice did not reveal an important role of VEGFD in. Furthermore, adipose Ritodrine hydrochloride tissue growth in mice can be impaired with angiogenesis inhibitors such as TNP a synthetic analog of fumagillin, that selectively inhibits endothelial cell growth by suppression of methionine aminopeptidase, angiostatin and endostatin. These agents are also able to cause weight reduction in aged, relatively weightstable obob mice, suggesting that adipose tissue blood vessels are relatively immature and susceptible to inhibitors even when no longer growing.Another study, using life adipose tissue imaging techniques, demonstrated that angiogenesis in obesity requires a close interplay between differentiating adipocytes, stromal cells and blood cells. The use of an antiVEGF antibody indeed inhibited not only angiogenesis, but also the formation of adipoangiogenic cell clusters, indicating that coupling of adipogenesis and angiogenesis is essential for differentiation of adipocytes in obesity, and confirming that VEGF is a key mediator. The implication of VEGF in adipose tissue angiogenesis was also evidenced for human tissue, using antiVEGF antibodies. A recent study showed that blockade of VEGFR but not VEGFR, using monoclonal antibodies, can limit dietinduced fat tissue expansion in mice.The results also indicated that angiogenesis from local preexisting vasculature, and not the contribution of bone marrowderived cells, primarily sustains new vessel formation in fat tissue during dietinduced obesity. Another strategy to reduce fat mass via its vasculature may be to target prohibitin, a multifunctional membrane protein selectively expressed in adipose tissue endothelial cells. Ablation of fat tissue can be achieved with a synthetic peptide, that binds to prohibitin and induces apoptosis in adipose tissue blood vessels.Dietary curcumin, the major polyphenol in turmeric spice, may also have a potential benefit in preventing obesity.Supplementing the highfat diet of mice with curcumin reduced body weight gain, adiposity, and microvessel density in adipose tissue, which coincided with reduced expression of VEGF and VEGFR.Since bone marrow aspiration is relatively invasive for patients with severe ischemic diseases, less invasive techniques for isolating cells for angiogenic therapy are warranted.Autologous subcutaneous adipose tissue has been proposed as an interesting cell source for therapeutic angiogenesis, since it can be harvested by minimal invasive technology.The stromal vascular fraction of adipose tissue contains multipotent mesenchymal stemprogenitor cells, called adiposederived stemprogenitor cells. These cells can differentiate into various lineages including fibroblasts, adipocytes, pericytes, osteoblasts, chondrocytes, and myocytes, and have the ability to regenerate damaged tissues. The combination of these biological properties suggests that autologous subcutaneous adipose tissue may be a next generation candidate as cell source for therapeutic angiogenesis.In particular, the VEGFVEGFR signaling system may be an attractive target.Recent studies have suggested that the expression pattern of pro and antiangiogenic components in adipose tissue is fat depot dependent.A better understanding of the regulation of their expression will thus be instrumental in the development of specific targeting approaches.

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